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Introduce the Stroop effect. Describe and define what it is and explain and define Stroop Interference and congruency effect.
The Stroop congruency and interference effects evaluate the precision of responding to the congruent as well as incongruent words by the research participants. Research studies advocate the influence of the response strategies of the individuals on the outcomes of the Stroop task in real-time scenarios. The variation in response times, as well as precision in recording the incongruent coloured words by the human subjects, reveals the level of their cognitive abilities and mental adaptation to the conflicting situations. The present research study evaluated the influence of the classical and animal Stroop tasks on the cognitive adaptation and response time in recording the congruent as well as the incongruent word conditions. The findings reveal the greater application of the Stroop interference effect as compared to the congruency effect in terms of evaluating the level of mental awareness, response time and cognitive capabilities of the research participants. Indeed, various aspects including the emotional Stroop effect and the impact of visual stimulus on the Stroop findings remained unexplored in the research methodology; however, the paired-samples tests indicate the reciprocal relationship of the Stroop tasks with the level of cognitive accuracy and response time of the human candidates.
When certain tasks are practised frequently, it reaches a state of automaticity. Automatic tasks are well known and do not require great flexibility. Automaticity makes multitasking easier because the practice allows mental processes to go forward untouched by the control mechanism, which results that these processes are now uncontrolled. On the other hand, automaticity has a downside where these automatic tasks are not controlled by the mind’s control mechanism and thus, can play as if they are ‘mental reflexes’. Moreover, automatic processes were once controlled processes that, through practice, have become automatic. Therefore it does not take up as many cognitive resources to use it. An example of an automatic task is reading; reading is well practised and frequently practised. Reading is one of the best examples for the lack of control, where it involves an effect known as Stroop interference (Reisberg, 2013).
The present research study explores the authenticity of Stroop congruency and interference effects on the accuracy and response time of the research subjects. The Stroop congruency effect becomes apparent as and when the subjects utilize speed, rather than accuracy in their response strategies (Chen & Johnson, 1991). The research study also finds the time differences in identifying the names of the colours or figures in a congruent format as compared to their identification in an incongruent format. The effect of interference by the conflicting words/figures stimuli on the precision of their tracking by the research subjects tested and recorded in this research study (Stroop, 1935). The Stroop study (1935) takes into consideration the response time of the candidates; however, the Chen study Chen & Johnson (1991) takes into consideration the response time as well as automaticity of responses, as evident in the following analysis.
The Stroop study (1935), aimed to examine the influence of the interfering word stimuli on the serial naming of colours. However, the Chen study attempted to concomitantly evaluate the Stroop interference and congruency effects under conflicting conditions. The candidates were asked to recognize the incongruent word patterns and their response time recorded for analysis in the Stroop study. However, in Chen’s study, the conflict, congruent and neutral word stimuli were generated (through mixed design approaches) for their concomitant recording by the research subjects. The subjects were randomly allocated to accuracy and speed groups, and the findings comparatively analyzed in the context of comparing the response time and accuracy of recording of words between both groups. The results of the Stroop study confirmed the Stroop interference effect that advocates the elevation in the response times of the candidates while recording the incongruent words. However, the findings of the study affirmed the elevation in the response time and decreased in accuracy while recording the incongruent words under conflicting condition. The Stroop effect confirms the influence of conflicting word and colour stimuli on the response times. However, response times could improve after training the candidates regarding overcoming the impact of interference while recording the incongruent words. Chen's (1991), the analysis leads to the conclusion that the word reading procedure leads to greater accuracy as compared to the recognition of colours of the incongruent words. The Stroop effect might be a direct implication of parallel distributed processing as well as the automaticity of responses.