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This course aims to introduce students to terms and concepts of contemporary international security in the world through the study and examination of academic sources in the field. The assigned readings provide students with information about security theories in various academic traditions. This course begins by introducing the notion of security and Nation State with reference to their historical backgrounds. In order to explain the interaction between security and state, it examines various theoretical interpretations of these concepts in internal and external contexts. The course aims to analyse some of the main challenges and opportunities that the end of the Cold War period has presented to the states globally and discusses the securitization theory, the post- modern critiques of traditional security theories and the feminist view on state and human security.
Cold war refers to the geo-political issues that resulted after World War II among two different groups of nations comprising of eastern block and western block. The eastern block comprised of Soviet Union and associated satellite countries while the western block comprised of US, the NATO allies and other allies to US. The cold war is believed to be during the period 1947 in which the Truman doctrine was launched. This was a foreign policy tool from US to help countries deal with the expansion of Soviet Union (Bell, Coral 1989). The cold war is believed to have ended in 1991 when Soviet Union collapsed. The cold war is called as 'cold' as the war was more of a proxy war rather than a direct fight between the two blocks. Michael Gorbachev is believed to be one of the reasons which helped to end cold war. He wanted to reform communist principles but he didn't want to replace communism. During his attempt, the attempt to reform got snowballed into a major revolution. Gorbachev was against the idea of making use of force to suppress demonstration and as a result of which Berlin wall breached. One of the other reasons was that liberal ideas which yielded soft power. The cross-country communication helped to easily spread the ideas across to multiple geographies. During the initial period of cold war, both communism and Soviet Union yielded soft power. There were many communists who had directly confronted fascists in Europe. There were many who believed that communism was bound to stay in future. The Soviet power was sharply reduced when Stalin lost power and his crimes were exposed (Richard , Lebow, 2007). Communism in theory believed in enforcing a framework of class justice but the heirs to Lenin tried to yield control by brutal use of power. As a result of brutal use of state power, most people lost faith in the system. International as well as economic factors played a critical role in the end of cold war. Both economic as well as soft power played a major role in fall of Soviet Union and subsequent end of cold war. Soviet Union lost its competitiveness with the US in most industries and as result lost out to US in the cold war.
In next section, the different theories like secularization theory and Marxism theory are reviewed and how they helped to end cold war. Also, other international factors that impacted the end of cold war is being discussed.
Role of Marxism in cold war
Since the introduction of Marxism, it has been a important political drive and a great persuasion in academia. It is one of main debates in the field of IR (international relations). But, with the conclusion of cold war and consecutive downfall of Soviet Union and the foreign socialist regional structure, the importance of Marxism was not very relevant. Few have stated that Marxism have been practiced and advocated by the vanquished system who has lost importance. Due to vanquished systems, crimes were committed and there were failures in abject. From a Marxist view, this article proved to be false by stating that Marxist ideology which was practiced and advocated by the previous Soviet Union and previous socialist system cannot be observed to a certain extent. Moreover, this article displays that Marxism own its importance in IR concept as a broad analysis and assessment of the recent capitalist structure, where several points seem to be useful (Watson, 2002).
To determine the importance of Marxism as a concept of IR, it is essential to determine the idea of class struggle, which is one of the key approaches of Marxist thoughts. Under the analysis of Marx, the past of all hitherto community is the past of class struggles. As per the above statement, class struggle must not be analysed as political drive which has no sense of the Communist Manifesto. Here, class struggle signifies the social associations between the bourgeoisie (holders of property and capital) and proletariat (facilitators of labour).
Class associations are not simply financial but also political in nature. The bourgeoisie earns profit by implementing the worker of proletariat for getting profit on daily basis i.e., surplus labour which a disagreement between two classes (McCauwley, 2008).
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