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What is the Association Between the SLA and the AGE?
Psycho-sociological factors such as age, motivation, and the level of engagement of the learner have a direct impact on the proficiency of the second language learner. Through the present paper the language acquisition skills of a learner in the context of age is studied. It is proposed that the early age of learning onset improves proficiency in SLA (second language acquisition) for a learner. This impact is studied in the context of cognitive and illicit memory variables as well as environmental gradients.
- Granena, G., & Long, M. H. (2012). Age of onset, length of residence, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment in three linguistic domains. Second Language Research, 29(3), 311–343
Synopsis: Most SLA research reflects that the socio-psychological determinants and the length of residency (LOR) impact the language proficiency of a learner (Mahmoudi and Mahmoudi, 2015). Through this empirical study, it is advocated that there exists a certain period of sensitivity in the lives of every learner, which coupled with an early age of onset (AO) leads to improved learning outcomes (Granena and Long, 2012). As opposed to variables such as level of involvement and the type of courses provided, the study focuses on the sensitive period of learning as a driver of the second language (L2) proficiency. It was reflected that each learner has a cognitive period, where the probability of learning a specific language goal with native adjacent results for them is high, beyond it, a 'learning gap' persists irrespective of the aptitude and the influencing variables. These variations can be the result of an increased learning structure gaps for the learners. The study assessed language outcome in terms of phonology, lexis, and collocation and, morphosyntax variables in three learner age groups, 3–6, 7–15, and 16–29 years for Chinese and Spanish learners. It was revealed that the progression of the phonology was lost by five or six years of life. The ability to acquire knowledge as per native standards in lexis and collocation was lost my mid-teens, and for morphosyntax thereafter.
Key results: The learners with the reduced language distance between L1 and L2 and early AO, have improved SLA outcome as per Llama Language Aptitude Test. Discontinuities with respect to the all three variables have been noticed, where the age of onset increased the challenges for learning adaptations of the participants.