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- Analyse critically and reflect on how management, leadership and stewardship practices affect the performance of individuals, teams and organisations.
- Research and apply organisation theories to critique and/or propose improvements to organisation and management practice.
- Demonstrate an understanding of the role of (public) stewardship in ensuring personal accountability and responsibility when engaging in management, leadership and followership practice.
The business environment now-a-days is becoming more competitive, dynamic, uncertain and complex. Hence, managing an organization becomes an important task to sustain in this competitive environment(Jones & George 2011). Both profit and non-profit organizations feel the need to change their managerial practices to survive in such an environment. To achieve organizational goals, the role of managers is to supervise and utilize the human and other resources of an organization(Jones & George 2011)The main pillars of management are organizing, planning, leading and controlling of resources like skilled and loyal employees, financial capital, machinery, raw materials, information technology and customers(Jones & George 2011). Different types of organizational theories have their own advantages, disadvantages, characteristics and limitations (Olum 2004).
Organizational theories help to become successful executives in profit, government and nonprofit organization in the fields of strategy, finance, marketing, information technology, operations, human resources and communication. There are different types of organizational theories like Agency theory, Institutional theory, Control theory, stakeholder theory and many more.
This report will focus on the analysis of downfall of Japan's biggest car manufacturing company 'Toyota Motor Corporation' with the help of different perspectives of Organization culture theory and Agency theory. This will help understand the management, leadership and stewardship practices and how they affect the performance of an individual, team and organization.
2. Issues and analysis
Human Resource management is one of the crucial aspect of management which has considerable impact on the success or failure of an organization. The HR practices of Toyota in their Japan based units were great success and took the company to newer heights. However,such practices did not give the same result when company expanded its production unit to western countries.
Instead of technically educated workers, Toyota recruited unskilled workers by relying on development of their skills for the job. They imparted crucial training to their employees. This hiring strategy resulted in gaining loyalty of the employees which was a great success till Toyota's production units were limited to Japan (Camuffo & Wilhelm 2016). However, these practices did not give the desired results when Toyota expanded its business and production units in the western countries (Camuffo & Wilhelm 2016). Many of the experienced staff members of Toyota left their jobs between 2005 and 2006 (Camuffo & Wilhelm 2016). The employees in the west were not consistent with the philosophy and corporate culture of Toyota. Hence, Toyota faced employee crises and thus there was an increase in stress level in the production (Camuffo & Wilhelm 2016). The reason behind this was that they were not capable of managing their employees because of the lack of employee engagement (Hunter 2010).
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